Sickness absence, medical and workplace conditions during pregnancy in a cohort of healthcare workers
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Palabras clave

embarazo; enfermedad; ausencia por enfermedad; factores de riesgo laborales; diagnóstico médico; prestación por riesgo durante el embarazo; condiciones de trabajo; estudio de cohorte

Cómo citar

1.
Villar Vinuesa R, Serra C, Serra L, Benavides FG. Sickness absence, medical and workplace conditions during pregnancy in a cohort of healthcare workers. Arch Prev Riesgos Labor [Internet]. 15 de abril de 2022 [citado 28 de mayo de 2022];25(2):101-18. Disponible en: https://archivosdeprevencion.eu/index.php/aprl/article/view/194

Resumen

Objetivo: Evaluar la asociación entre trayectorias de ausencia por enfermedad (SA) según diagnóstico y exposición a factores de riesgo laborales durante el embarazo.

Métodos: Estudio de cohortes (367 trabajadoras sanitarias embarazadas). Se identificaron trayectorias de ausencia por enfermedad según los diagnósticos más frecuentes mediante análisis de secuencias (2010-2014). La trayectoria 1 incluía SA principalmente por trastornos musculoesqueléticos (58,86%), la 2 por trastornos relacionados con el embarazo (25,07%) y la 3 incluía ausencias por la prestación por riesgo durante el embarazo (POR) y pocas SA (16,08%). La exposición a factores de riesgo laborales fue evaluada por expertos y se analizó la asociación con las trayectorias mediante regresión logística. Los riesgos relativos (RR) y sus intervalos de confianza (IC95%) se ajustaron por edad, contrato y turno.

Resultados: La trayectoria 1 se asoció negativamente con la exposición a riesgos de seguridad y ergonómicos (RR=0,56, IC95%=0,35-0,90; RR=0,50, IC95%=0,33-0,77) y con índice de riesgo global más bajo (RR=0,68, IC95%=0,49-0,96). La tercera se asoció a riesgos de seguridad y ergonómicos (RR=2,75, IC 95 %=1,59-4,75; RR=3,64, IC 95 %=2,18-6,06) y con el riesgo más alto (RR=2,69, 95 % IC=1,43-5,01). El personal de enfermería tuvo mayor probabilidad de pertenecer a la trayectoria 3 (RR 5,58, IC95%=2,09-14,95 y RR 5,00, IC95% 2,18-6,06).

Conclusiones: Los trastornos musculoesqueléticos y por trastornos relacionados con el embarazo son los grupos diagnósticos de SA más frecuentes. Bajos niveles de exposición a riesgos laborales se relacionaron con ausencias cubiertas principalmente por SA. Las prestaciones sociales parecen utilizarse complementariamente para equilibrar el trabajo y la salud.

https://doi.org/10.12961/aprl.2022.25.02.03
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Citas

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